Ghassan Sulieman Eldie Ibrahim
University of Khartoum,Sudan
Mr. Ghassan has completed his Bachelor degree in Pharmacy from University of Khartoum, then studied for a master degree in Genetics and Molecular biology at faculty of science University of Khartoum, he has been interested very much in CRISPR research applications since 2015 and has conducted an article review on CRISPR researches focused on molecular precision of CRISPR gene editing.
The explosion of genomic sequencing technologies combined with recent advances in genome-editing techniques has elevated the possibilities of genetic manipulations in numerous organisms in which these experiments were previously not readily accessible or possible. CRISPR/Cas9 is abbreviation of (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat)/ associated Caspase 9 (Cas9) protein (a nuclease enzyme) system, and it is derived from bacterial immune systems; it is emerging as a powerful tool for genome editing. Cas9 can be easily programmed to target new sites by altering its guide RNA sequence using computational methods; it can have many useful applications in biomedical human research and therapeutics.The goals of this review are to explain how CRISPR functions as a prokaryotic immune system, describe how researchers generate mutations with CRISPR/Cas9, highlight how Cas9 has been adapted for new functions, decrease the off-target effects for optimum therapeutic applications on humans and discuss ethical considerations of genome editing. Finally, the review also includes a case study and practical suggestions to incorporate CRISPR/Cas9 experiments into predicting the precision of gene editing of the Prostate Cancer fused genes (TMPRSS2:ERG).